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Glossary


TESTING SPECIFICATION


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AAMA 808.3

AAMA 808.3 provides specifications and test methods for exterior perimeter sealing compounds for use with fenestration products. Products meeting the requirements of AAMA 808.3 pass testing for cracking, bond loss, staining, hardness, >90% cohesive failure, slump, stain migration, low temperature flexibility and water resistance.-

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Abrasive planer

A planer in which wood is removed by large sandpaper belts

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Accelerated aging

A set of laboratory conditions designed to produce in a short time the results of normal aging. Usual factors included are temperature, light, oxygen and water. In recent years, the adhesives industry has come to rely more and more on the "oxygen bomb" test as an indicator of relative life expectancy of a given formulation.

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Accelerated weathering

A set of laboratory conditions to simulate in a short time the effects of natural weathering. Most adhesives are generally not subjected to the conditions that are normally considered under weathering tests.

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Accelerator

An ingredient used in small amounts to speed up the action of the hardener in a two part adhesive.

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Acetone

A very volatile and flammable solvent that is particularly useful for cleaning metal substrates.

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ACGIH

American Conference of Governmental Hygienists

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Adhere

To cause two surfaces to be held together by adhesion.

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Adherend

A body which is held to another body by an adhesive.

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Adhesion

The state in which two surfaces are held together by interfacial forces which may consist of valence forces or interlocking action, or both.

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Adhesion, mechanical

Adhesion between surfaces in which the adhesive holds the parts together by interlocking action.

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Adhesion, specific

Adhesion between surfaces that are held together by valence forces of the same type as those which give rise to cohesion.

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Adhesive

A substance capable of holding materials together by surface attachment. Same as cement.

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Adhesive failure

Type of failure characterized by pulling the adhesive loose from the substrate.

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Adhesive, assembly

An adhesive that can be used for bonding parts together such as the manufacture of a boat, airplane, furniture, and the like.

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Adhesive, cold-setting

An adhesive that sets at temperature below 68°F (20°C).

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Adhesive, contact

An adhesive that is apparently dry to the touch and which will adhere to itself instantaneously upon contact; also called contact bond adhesive or dry bond adhesive.

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Adhesive, dispersion

A two phase system in which one phase is suspended in a liquid.

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Adhesive, foamed

An adhesive, the apparent density of which has been decreased substantially by the presence of numerous gaseous cells dispersed throughout its mass. Same as cellular adhesive.

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Adhesive, heat activated

A dry adhesive film that is rendered tacky or fluid by application of heat or heat and pressure to the assembly.

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Adhesive, hot melt

An adhesive that is applied in a molten state and forms a bond on cooling to a solid state.

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Adhesive, hot-setting

An adhesive that requires a temperature at or above 100°C (212°F) to set.

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Adhesive, intermediate temperature setting

An adhesive that sets in the temperature range of 31°-99°C (87°-211°F).

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Adhesive, multiple layer

A film adhesive with a different adhesive composition on each side; designed to bond dissimilar materials such as the core to face bond of a sandwich composite.

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Adhesive, pressure sensitive

A viscoelastic material which in solvent-free form remains permanently tacky. Such a material will adhere instantaneously to most solid surfaces with the application of very slight pressure.

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Adhesive, room temperature setting

An adhesive that sets in the temperature range of 20°-30°C (68°-86°F).

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Adhesive, separate application

A term used to describe an adhesive consisting of two parts, one part being applied to one substrate and the other part to the other substrate and the two brought together to form a joint.

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Adhesive, solvent

An adhesive having a volatile organic liquid as a vehicle.

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Adhesive, solvent activated

A dry adhesive film that is rendered tacky just prior to use by application of a solvent.

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Adsorption

The action of a body in condensing and holding gases and other materials at its surface.

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AFG-01 : Performance Specifications for Adhesives Used for Field-Gluing Plywood to Wood Framing

Established by the American Plywood Association, this test method measures adhesive strength for wood-to-wood applications. AFG-01 requires that adhesives applied at the job site be sunlight resistant and able to fill gaps. Adhesives are subject to adverse weather conditions including moisture, sunlight and fluctuating temperature conditions.-

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AFMA

American Furniture Manufacturers Association

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Aging

The progressive change in the chemical and physical properties of a sealant or adhesive.

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Aliphatic resin glue

Yellow glues which provide more grab for shorter clamp times, and offer better water resistance and heat resistance than traditional white glues

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Alligatoring

Cracking of a surface into segments so that it resembles the hide of an alligator.

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Ambient

Usual or surrounding conditions.

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Ambient temperature

Temperature of the air surrounding the object under construction.

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Ampere

A unit of electric current. One ampere flows through a conductor having a resistance of one ohm, when there is one-volt difference between the ends of the circuit. (A.)

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Anaerobic

Adhesives that cure in the absence of oxygen.

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Aniline dye

Any of a large number of synthetic dyes derived from aniline, usually obtained from coal tar.

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ANSI

American National Standards Institute.

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ANSI/HPVA Type II Water-Resistance : Wood glues

Type II testing involves cutting the 6" by 6" assemblies into 2" by 5" specimens, soaking them for 4 hours, then baking the specimens in a 120°F oven for 19 hours. This is repeated for a total of three cycles, and the bonds must not delaminate to pass the Type II specification.-

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Application temperature

The temperature at which a bond is made. While it may reflect the temperature of the glue or adhesive at the time it is applied, it mostly represents the temperature of the air and the materials being joined. Ultimately, because the adhesive will dry or cure at the temperature of the materials surrounding it, the application temperature most specifically reflects that temperature.

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Arc

A self-sustaining visible flow or discharge of electricity through air that will result in a burn if the flow is through a material of normal insulating properties.

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ASNI/HPVA Type I Water-Resistance : Wood glues

Type I testing involves cutting the 6" by 6" assemblies into 1" by 3" specimens, boiling them for 4 hours, then baking the specimens in a 145°F oven for 20 hours. They are boiled for an additional 4 hours, then immediately cooled using running water. The specimens are sheared while wet, and the bonds must pass certain strength and wood failure requirements to pass the Type I specification.-

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Asphalt

Naturally occurring mineral pitch or bitumen.

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Assembly

A group of materials or parts, including adhesive, which has been placed together for bonding or which has been bonded together.

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Assembly Time

Also called Open Time. The time period from the application of adhesive until the final application of pressure. This term includes both Closed and Open Assembly Times.

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A-stage

An early stage in the reaction of certain thermosetting resins in which the material is fusible and still soluble in certain liquids.

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Asthma

A disease characterized by recurrent attacks of wheezing and shortness of breath.

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ASTM

American Society for Testing and Materials.

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ASTM 1623

This test method covers the determination of the tensile and tensile adhesion properties of rigid cellular materials in the form of test specimens of standard shape under defined conditions of temperature, humidity, and testing machine speed.-

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ASTM C1382

This standard determines the adhesion properties of a sealant with the exterior insulation and finish system (EIFS) substrate in dry, wet, frozen, heat-aged, and artificial weather-aged conditions by examining its tensile adhesive properties.-

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ASTM C518

This test method provides a rapid means of determining the steady-state thermal transmission properties of thermal insulations and other materials with a high level of accuracy when the apparatus has been calibrated appropriately.-

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ASTM C557 : Standard Specification for Adhesives for Fastening Gypsum Wallboard to Wood Framing

Designed for adhesives intended to bond the back surface paper of drywall to wood framing members. This test method measures shear and tensile strength tests, gap filling, freeze-thaw stability tests and accelerated adhesive aging.-

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ASTM C834

This standard covers latex sealants used for sealing joints in building construction. The following are tests done within this standard: extrudability, after aging, artificial weathering, volume shrinkage, low-temperature flexibility, extension-recovery and adhesion, slump, staining and tack-free time.-

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ASTM C919

This practice is a guide for the use of sealants to reduce the sound transmission characteristics of interior walls, ceilings, and floors by proper application of sealants to joints, voids, and penetrations normally found in building construction.-

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ASTM C920

This specification covers the properties of a cured single- or multi-component cold-applied elastomeric joint sealant for sealing, caulking, or glazing operations on buildings, plazas, and decks for vehicular or pedestrian use, and types of construction other than highway and airfield pavements and bridges.-

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ASTM D1621

This test method provides information regarding the behavior of cellular materials under compressive loads. Test data is obtained, and from a complete load-deformation curve it is possible to compute the compressive stress at any load (such as compressive stress at proportional-limit load or compressive strength at maximum load) and to compute the effective modulus of elasticity.-

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ASTM D1622

This test method covers the density of a cellular plastic. Density can be evaluated as the apparent overall density (includes forming skins) or by apparent core density (forming skins removed).-

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ASTM D1779

This specification covers an adhesive for bonding prefabricated acoustical materials to the inside walls and ceilings of rooms in buildings. This adhesive is required to maintain a tensile adhesion (bond strength) of not less than 3.45 104 dynes/cm2 (1/2 lb/in.2) for a long period of time under the temperature and moisture conditions likely to be encountered and to maintain sufficient plasticity to allow for movement of parts of the building as it ages.-

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ASTM D2126

Because of the wide variety of potential uses of rigid cellular plastics, artificial exposure to estimate the effective behavior of these materials must be based, to a great extent, on the intended application. Toward this end, this test method is intended to recommend a variety of conditions from which one or more of the desired exposure conditions can be selected.-

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ASTM D2126

This test method determines numerical values for open cells. It is a porosity determination, measuring the accessible cellular volume of a material. The volume occupied by closed cells is considered to include cell walls. Since any conveniently sized specimen can only be obtained by some cutting operation, a fraction of the closed cells will be opened during sample preparation and will be included as open cells.-

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ASTM D3498

Measures strength for gluing plywood to lumber framing for floor systems and shall exceed the strength, gap-filling and durability properties prescribed in the standard. This specification ensures the quality and strength of the adhesive.-

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ASTM D4236

This practice describes the standard procedure for developing precautionary labels for art materials to provide chronic health hazard and precautionary statements based on knowledge that exists in the scientific and medical communities. These statements concern hazards known to be associated with a product or product component(s) when it is present in a physical form, volume, or concentration that in the opinion of a toxicologist has the potential to produce a chronic adverse health effect.-

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ASTM D6226

This test method is intended to be used in specifications where porosity of cellular plastics has a direct bearing on their end use. For example, for thermal insulation applications, a high percentage of closed cells is necessary to prevent escape of gases and to promote low thermal conductivity. In flotation applications, high closed-cell content generally reduces water absorption.-

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ASTM D905 (on hard maple)

This test method covers the determination of the comparative shear strengths of adhesive bonds used for bonding wood and other similar materials, when tested on a standard specimen under specified conditions of preparation, conditioning, and loading in compression. This test method is intended primarily as an evaluation of adhesives for wood. This specification is designed to cover comparative shear strengths of adhesive bonds used for bonding wood or other similar materials, when tested on a standard specimen under the subscribed conditions of preparation, conditioning and loading in compression. This test method is intended primarily as an evaluation for wood adhesives.-

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ASTM E2178

The purpose of this test is to measure the air permeance of flexible sheet or rigid panel-type materials. The results of this test may be useful in determining suitability of that material as a component of an air retarder system.-

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ASTM E283

This test method is a standard procedure for determining the air leakage characteristics under specified air pressure differences at ambient conditions.-

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ASTM E72

These test methods cover the procedures for determining the structural properties of segments of wall, floor, and roof constructions.-

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ASTM E84

This fire-test-response standard for the comparative surface burning-behavior of building materials is applicable to exposed surfaces such as walls and ceilings. The test is conducted with the specimen in the ceiling position with the surface to be evaluated exposed face down to the ignition source. The material, product, or assembly shall be capable of being mounted in the test position during the test. Thus, the specimen shall either be self-supporting by its own structural quality, held in place by added supports along the test surface, or secured from the back side.-

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Auto Tune

A circuit installed in a RF generator designed to maintain the optimum amount of power during a RF cure cycle.

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Autoclaved Aerated Concrete (AAC) Blocks

Precast, manufactured building stone made of all-natural raw materials. It is an economical, environmentally friendly, cellular, lightweight, structural material that provides thermal and acoustic insulation as well as fire and termite resistance.

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Automatic Edging Saw

Automatic Edging Saw A straight line rip saw used to edge one side of the blank before it is ripped on the rip saw. This is accomplished by using canted, automatic rollers to feed the stock through the saw after it has been planed.

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